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The top family planning methods which help to avoid unwanted pregnancy include condoms, birth control pills, female awareness methods, spermicide, diaphragm, vasectomy and sterilization, intrauterine device, birth control sponge and implants, vaginal rings. Most of these birth control methods have appreciating success rate.
An awareness about Family Planning methods or Birth Control methods must reach all those couples who want to prevent pregnancy. There are several contraceptive methods that can help in birth control. This article answers the question- how to control pregnancy?
Condoms are thin, stretchable sacks that cover the penis from the upper side. They are mostly made of animal skin membranes. Synthetic and plastic made condoms are also available. (1) A male condom collects the sperm (semen) and stops it from meeting with the egg and thus prevent pregnancy. It is the most widely used birth control method. It protects from STDs also. Most of the STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) are caused by the interaction of semen with vaginal fluids. As condom does not allow this interaction, hence it protects from such infections too. (2)
2. Female Condom
A Female Condom is one more contraceptive method which can be used to prevent pregnancy. It is similar to a regular male condom. A female condom is a stretchy pouch which is inserted inside the vagina. During sexual intercourse, the sperm(semen) is collected inside the pouch, preventing it from reaching the egg. It is one of the easiest Family Planning methods. It also reduces the threat of catching STDs. (3)
3. Withdrawal or Pull Out method
It is one of the most common birth control methods to prevent pregnancy. It is a process of withdrawing the penis from the vaginal cavity just before the semen discharges. It prevents the semen from reaching the egg. Using a condom with withdrawal can be a very effective family planning method. It can be an answer for how to control pregnancy but it does not reduce the risk of STDs(Sexually Transmitted Diseases). (4)
4. Birth Control Pills
Birth Control Pills are often used by female partners for family planning. It is one of the most common contraceptive methods for birth control. Anyone who doesn’t know how to control pregnancy can take these pills on a regular basis. These birth control pills are medicines with hormones that stop ovulation and thickens cervical mucus. If there will be no ovulation, no woman can get pregnant. Moreover, this thick mucus acts as a barrier to sperm and prevents it from meeting the egg. This prevents pregnancy and it can easily be used for birth control. (5)
5. Outercourse and Abstinence
Being abstinent towards sexual intercourse(penetration of the penis into vagina) is a highly effective family planning method. Other activities of sexual intercourse like anal or oral sex come under outercourse and they do not lead to pregnancy. Abstinence as a birth control method refers to refraining one’s own self from vaginal sex (ejaculation of sperm into the vagina). This prevents the semen to reach the egg and then no fertilization can take place. This method variates from people to people. Some people tend to be abstinent only during the fertile days(ovulation) of their partner to avoid fertilization. Some people take it as having no sexual intimation at all. Some people choose to have anal or oral intercourse but not the vaginal one. This can also be considered as a part of the contraceptive method. (6)
6. Female Awareness Methods (FAMs)
As per a study, 24 out of 100 couples attained pregnancy using Female Awareness Methods. This is a low rate and it can be taken as a family planning method to prevent pregnancy. Female Awareness Methods(FAMs) mainly emphasize on checking ovulation. (7)
It can be done by-
- Regular temperature check
- Checking vaginal discharge
- Using an ovulation calculator or period calendar
This method implicates avoiding vaginal sex during the most fertile days or ovulation. FAMs are highly productive birth control methods if it is applied using all three techniques mentioned above.
7. Spermicide and Diaphragm
- Spermicide is also an effective contraceptive method. Spermicide is a method of penetrating a chemical deep into the vaginal cavity to stop sperm to easily flow and get to an egg. This elevates birth control. It is an effective solution for how to control pregnancy.
- On the other hand, A shallow cup, saucer-like structure made of soft silicone called Diaphragm can be placed inside the vagina. It covers the cervix part and prevents semen to meet the egg. This family planning method works effectively if combined with spermicide. The diaphragm keeps the spermicide in place and thus prevents pregnancy. (8)
8. Vasectomy and Sterilization
These are some surgical treatments to be taken as birth control methods. If the natural contraceptive methods had been considered earlier and still the question of how to control pregnancy is raging, then these surgical treatments are 99% effective for birth control.
- Vasectomy is a surgical treatment for male partners. The small tube carrying sperm called scrotum is blocked by minor surgery. The sperm cannot get out of the body and thus it prevents pregnancy. It is an irreversible process and only be considered when the male partner is 100% sure of birth control at present and in a future scenario.
- Sterilization, on the counterpart, is a surgical treatment for female partners. It is an effective family planning method as Vasectomy. During ovulation, the mature eggs reach the fallopian tube and wait for the sperm to meet and get fertilized. With a small surgery, the fallopian tube is permanently blocked which obstructs the path of sperm to reach an egg. This is also a permanent birth control methods and prevents pregnancy even for a future case, too. (9) (10)
9. IUD ( Intrauterine Device)
Most of the couple face difficulties when it comes to family planning. In such cases, IUD is 99% effective birth control method. It’s a flexible, T-shaped plastic device placed inside the uterus which deviates the path of sperm. This way sperm can’t reach any egg and it prevents pregnancy. (11)
There are two kinds of IUD
- ParaGard IUD or Copper IUD- Pregnancy takes place when the sperm reaches an egg. This device is wrapped in a thin plating of copper which prevents sperm to get to an egg. This method can prevent pregnancy for up to 12 years and its a highly recommended family planning method.
- Hormonal IUD(Mirena, Kyleena, Skyla, and Liletta)- These IUDs carry a hormone called progestin. This hormone thickens the cervical mucus due to which even if the sperm enters into the vaginal cavity it can’t survive. It will die before reaching an egg and hence no pregnancy can take place.
The IUDs are temporary treatments and convenient emergency birth control methods. It can work within 120 hours (5 days) even after having unprotected sex.
10. Birth Control Sponge, Vaginal Ring, Implant, Patch and Shot
If the female partner wants to know how to control pregnancy and does not want to share it with the male partner, these birth control methods are proven helpful. (12)
- Sponge- A small, soft sponge made of squeezable plastic is inserted into the vagina. It protects the cervix and blocks the path of sperm to reach an egg.
- Vaginal Ring- It a ring-like structure carrying hormone that one can wear inside the vagina. It thickens the cervical mucus and leads to prevent pregnancy. This is a removable ring and is widely used as a contraceptive method for birth control.
- Implant- This is a birth control methods where a thin, tiny rod-like structure is implanted in the upper arms of the female partner. This rod carries progestin which thickens the cervical mucus. Sperm can’t survive in such acidic nature and hence can’t reach an egg. This even stops the eggs from leaving the ovaries and thus prevents pregnancy. Similarly, Birth control patch and birth control shot thickens the mucus and prevents the sperm to reach an egg, resulting in no pregnancy.
Following these family planning methods can help a large number of couples to prevent pregnancy. Unwanted pregnancy may lead to stress and anxiety. It's better to adopt birth control methods and control pregnancy before it gets too late.
SOURCES AND REFERENCES:
- ^ Condom - Wikipedia En.wikipedia.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ How to Use a Male Condom | CDC Cdc.gov, 20 June 2019
- ^ Female Condoms - How to Use a Female Condom | AVERT Avert.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ Pull Out Method | Withdrawal Method | What is Pulling Out? | Planned Parenthood Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ Birth Control Pills | The Pill | Contraceptive Pills - Planned Parenthood Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ What is the Definition of Abstinence and Outercourse? Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ Family planning/Contraception - World Health Organization Who.int, 20 June 2019
- ^ How to Use the Diaphragm | Follow Easy Instructions | Planned Parenthood Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ Male Vasectomy Procedure | What is a Vasectomy? | Planned Parenthood Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
- ^ Sterilization - Permanent Method - Your Life Your-life.com, 20 June 2019
- ^ Intrauterine Device (IUD) - NHS Nhs.uk, 20 June 2019
- ^ Birth Control Methods & Options | Types of Birth Control | Planned Parenthood Plannedparenthood.org, 20 June 2019
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