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    fertility basics

    Know about Gynecology and Gynecologists? Gynecological Disorders Treatments

    • 4.8   (5 Votes)

    Gynecologists are the specialists who practice in the field of Gynecology. Fertility problems and solutions are performed by Gynecologists. Gynecologist is consulted for menstrual cramps, PCOD, Uterine Fibroid, and Endometriosis. Gynecological disorders treatments are divided into medicinal and surgical treatments.

    What is Gynecology?

    Gynecology is the science of studying, treating and managing female reproductive health, functions, imbalances, and diseases. In common parlance, Gynecology is the science of women health. The word Gynecology is of Greek origin in etymological perspective. It is derived out of two words gyne- women and logia- study. The female reproductive system has mostly consisted of vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix and breasts, which is dealt with by Gynecology as a study and medical practice. (1)

    Who is A Gynecologist?

    A Gynecologist is a person who studies and practices Gynecology. He/she receives medical training (mostly in Obstetrics & Gynecology) and license to carry out practices like Gynecological Diagnosis, Gynecological Treatments through medicines and surgeries along with Gynecological Counseling and feedback. (2)

    A lady gynecologist talking to patient

    Gynecologists should be consulted for diagnosing and treating any reproductive area problems (abnormalities and diseases in vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix and breasts) in a woman of any age.

    A Brief History About Gynecology

    The history of Gynecology dates back to 1800 BC Greece. During that time, Gynecology existed only on paper in the form of medical text. For the first time in Gynecological history, KahunGynecological Papyrus emerged as the first and foremost gynecological text, which discussed many issues on women’s health in detail. (3)

    Brief history about gynecology

    This medical text was very comprehensive with thirty-four sections discussing on various reproductive health issues such as gynecological disease, pregnancy, conception, and fertility. However, it did not include any prognosis or treatment and hence considered as a text of Gynecological complaint only. 

    Before Kahun Gynecological Papyrus also, there were Gynecological treatises such as Hippocratic Corpus, Soranus Ephesus that however dealt mostly in the biology of living beings such as animals as a whole. Aristotelian’s treatises such as History of Animals, Parts of Animals, Generation of Animals are some of them who focused extensively on biological nature of diseases in animals where gynecological issues were included in an underexplored way. Despite all the shortcomings of Classical Gynecology as discussed above; Modern Gynecology emerged with their footsteps. We have got J. Marion Sims who due to some of his gynecological prognosis, considered as the father of Modern Gynecology.

    Gynecological Diseases- When to Visit a Gynecologist?

    There is a wide range of Gynecological issues or diseases, which may be listed under various groups on the basis of their symptoms and treatment procedure such as (4)-

    1- Pregnancy related issues- for early pregnancy detection, antenatal care, childbirth, post-natal care and services, miscarriage, abortion, etc. (5)

    2- Problems related to female genitalia- problems in external and internal genitalia (vagina, vulva, cervix, anus, etc.) such as vaginal pain, infection, discharge, inflammation, swelling, unusual odor and tearing of genitalia from sexual contact.

    3- Menstrual issues- When you face menstrual irregularities and problems such as- irregular or no menstrual cycle for a long period of time, heavy or very little menstrual bleeding, menstrual cycle change, Dysmenorrhea (painful period), Amenorrhea (Nonappearance of Menstrual period), Menorrhagia (menstrual period with heavy flow and consistency), premenstrual syndrome, post menstrual depression etc. (6)
    A girl telling about menstrual issues to gynecologist

    4- Problems with Breasts- Breast abnormalities, pain, tenderness, lump, nipple discharge, inverted nipples, breast skin changes, etc. should be consulted with a Gynaecologist.

    5- Problems related to Menopause- When you experience menopausal problems such as early menopause, hot flashes, mood swings, headache, and menopause after removal of ovaries, etc, consulting Gynaecologist will be a better solution.

    6- Puberty issues- Very late menarche (first menstrual period) or no menarche, no physical change (in the breast, hip, etc.) for a long time after puberty or other related problems concerning puberty should be consulted with a Gynecologist.

    7- Hormonal problems detection and care- You need a Gynecologist to detect and treat hormonal problems such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/Disease (PCOS/PCOD). (7)

    8- Fertility problems- Pre Cancerian diseases in women, Intra-Uterine Diseases (infection in womb and the membranes), Ovarian problems such as cysts, fibroids, blockage problems in fallopian tubes (Hydrosalpinx, Pyosalpinx, Hematosalpinx, Chronic Salpingitis etc.), endometriosis, etc. which may hamper your fertility should be consulted by a Gynaecologist. (8)

    9- Weight issues- (both overweight & underweight) in women should be consulted with a Gynecologist as it may have a negative effect on fertility in women.

    For family planning consultation (use of birth control methods, devices, sexual counseling, etc.) and care.

    To mitigate the risk/s of sexually transmitted disease/s.

    Gynecological Treatments - Medicinal, Surgery & Consultations

    Gynecological treatments are provided less than three inter-related heads- medicines, surgery, and consultation. Normally consultation is the first step in any of the treatment for gynecological diseases and abnormalities. On the basis of consultation, a Gynaecologist provides medicinal or surgical treatment to any woman depending on the severity of the issue. (9)

    For your purpose, we have culled out the areas under which gynecologist consultation and treatment can be provided. However, as the world of gynecological medicine is very extensive, it is hard to provide medicinal information in this article.

    A Gynaecologist can be consulted for purposes such as -

    • Consultation for pregnancy detection and all stages of pregnancy care and childbirth.
    • Problems in the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding (irregular/no menstruation, heavy/no menstrual bleeding, menstrual cramps, menopause, etc.
    • Treatment and care of various reproductive and hormonal diseases such as Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroid, PCOS/PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/Disease), etc.
    • Infertility evaluation through Postcoital testing, Endometrial biopsies, HSG (Hysterosalpingogram) testing, semen analysis, etc.
    • Treatment and care of various sexual dysfunctions and libido management, (erectile problem diagnosis and care, Female Sexual Arousal Disorder etc.).
    • Detection and treatment of female genitalia problems (pelvic area diseases, infections, discharge, swelling, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)
    • Family Planning care.
    • Weight management and care.

    Gynecological Surgery-

    Apart from care and consultation, Gynaecologists perform various surgeries as well depending on the nature of the gynecological problem. Common surgeries/operations performed by a Gynaecologist are (10) -

    • Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterine cavity) and Hysterectomy (uterus removal) -if issues with uterus such as uterine cancer or endometriosisappear which is not treatable through medicine.
    • Tubal Ligation- Permanent sterilization to close woman’s fallopian tubes due to severe tube blockage problems (Hydrosalpinx, Pyosalpinx, Hematosalpinx, Chronic Salpingitis, etc.)
    • Removal of uterine contents- Due to dysfunctional uterine bleeding with no medicinal solution and to cure a partial miscarriage.
    • Oophorectomy- Surgery is done to remove one or both the ovaries due to ovarian cancer.
    • Appendectomy- Surgery to remove painful endometriosis implantation or to end the future chance of appendicitis burst. Done due to risks of ovarian cancer as well.
    • Cervical Excision-If a woman is diagnosed with precancerous cells identified as a pap smear, cervical excision is done to remove the surface of the cervix.
    • Diagnostic Laparoscopy- Done to diagnose and cure the sources of pelvic and abdominal pain due to endometriosis. Under this surgical procedure, a laparoscope is passed through a small cut in the abdomen.

    Hope this article has been able to resolve your queries on Gynecology. Follow OVO Fertility blog to get regular updates on fertility health and treatment.





    Destin Stafford

    It is good to know so much about women related problems. There is a separate medical branch dealing with female problems.

    Oct. 13, 2018, 2:48 p.m. 5.0


    Kashi Basit

    I was thinking of visiting a gynecologist as I am having irregular cycles.

    Sept. 30, 2018, 6:03 p.m. 5.0


    Sheetal Ganapule

    I also want to be a gynecologist so that I can help women with the better health.

    Sept. 12, 2018, 4:44 p.m. 5.0


    Zetreea Bae

    Well, you need to follow a regular exercise regime and get some fertility massage done to naturally treat your weak endometrium lining. Pregnancy with thin lining can be a lil bit complicating. It would be better if you first try some natural method.

    Oct. 27, 2017, 4:51 p.m. 4.5



    My Endometrium lining is weak and its thickness is around 3.6mm. How to thicken the lining of uterus?

    Oct. 4, 2017, 3:21 p.m. 4.5

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