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Regenerative Medicine - Usage, Side effects of Regenerative Medicine Therapies

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Regenerative medicine seeks to replace damaged tissues or organs in the human body. Regenerative medicine can treat infertility problems such as premature ovarian failure, sperm morphology, and damaged endometrium. The regenerative medicine therapies include Stem cell therapy, Platelet Rich Plasma therapy, Prolotherapy.

Regenerative Medicine is a process where Rejuvenation, Replacement or Regeneration of human cells, tissues and organs takes place for the future establishment of the normal biological functioning of the body. It functions by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms. Regenerative medicine is a blessing in disguise, which has helped scientists to grow tissues/organs in the laboratory and implant them in future when the body is unable to regenerate those cells by itself. (1) (2)

Regenerative medicine, in other words, is a group of biomedical approaches or clinical therapies, which use stem cells in the body. Some of the examples of regenerative medicine include

Cell therapies i.e. Injection of stem cells or progenitor cells

Immunomodulation therapy i.e. regeneration of biological molecules as secretions in the infused cells etc

Regenerative Medicine incorporates an extensive range of scientific disciplines including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, and biochemistry. However, it primarily focuses on the following key principles:

  • The physiological mechanisms of stem cells
  • Knowledge of how cells grow and die
  • What makes stem cells convert into other cells
  • Knowledge of the supporting structure between cells

Regenerative Medicine and Infertility

Regenerative Medicine is a boon for people stressed with infertility. It impressively rescues people suffering from infertility with regeneration and reproduction solutions. (3)

Regenerative Medicine provides below-mentioned solutions to infertility -

  • Treating premature ovarian failure
  • Rejuvenating the poor ovarian reserve and enhancing the quality of the egg
  • Treating damaged endometrium and reinstating endometrial tissues
  • Dealing with issues like Spermatogenesis or Sperm Morphology

Infertility affects a significant number of the population worldwide. Hormonal stimulation, intrauterine insemination, IVF or ICSI, gamete donation, and uterine surrogacy are the primary treatment options available nowadays to resolve fertility issues. Most of these treatment options rely on the fact that both partners produce functional gametes if they are experiencing infertility. However, in cases where one or both partners are not able to produce functional gametes then they have to rely on the use of donor gametes. Apart from this, no treatment options are currently available for such cases. (4)

At times, couples do not accept the donation of gametes as it coincides with the loss of a genetic link with the child. As a substitute to the gamete donation, the possibility of patient-specific pluripotent stem cell-derived gametes has been emerged through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generation. Germline progenitors which are present in the gonads, such as spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) in the male and ovarian stem cells (OSC) in the female is another eminent approach which is widely used to generate functional gametes.

As a result, the stem cell therapy has been introduced as a single solution to varied reproductive problems, which involve the generation of gametes, treating endometrial damage, curing erectile dysfunction and vaginal atrophy. (5)

Regenerative Medicine Therapies

Apart from its usage in treating infertility, Regenerative Medicine has many usages including treatment degenerative and life threating disorders. Some of the commonly utilized therapies used in the field of regenerative medicine include

1. Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cell therapy is the process of treating or preventing the damage to the tissues or organs. Stem cell therapy has the capability of curing more than 80 different types of disorders in human beings. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell, which can be converted into differentiated cells as and when required. (6)

A stem cell does not serve a specific bodily function, but it can develop into a cell that does a specific function in the body, such as a cartilage cell or a tendon cell. Physicians who use stem cell therapy believe that, when placed into a certain environment, stem cells can transform to meet a certain need. For example, stem cells that are placed near a damaged Achilles tendon are hypothesized to develop into healthy Achilles tendon cells.

2. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)

Many experts believe that the natural healing properties found in the blood’s platelets and plasma can be used to facilitate the healing and repair of sports injuries. PRP can be injected or applied to the injured area during a surgery. To make PRP, blood is taken from the patient and then processed, often using a centrifuge to create a concentrated solution of platelets and plasma. PRP therapy is also utilized in ovarian rejuvenation. (7)

3. Prolotherapy

Inflammation increases blood flow and attracts cells like granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts that can repair and heal damaged tissues. Sports injuries usually cause inflammation, but in some cases, inflammation subsides before the injury has healed. During prolotherapy, a physician injects an irritant into the injured area, which temporarily increases inflammation facilitating further healing. (8)

Prolotherapy sometimes uses PRP as an irritant, but prolotherapy is not by definition a cellular therapy. In fact, the most commonly used irritant is dextrose, a simple sugar. Substances such as glycerine or saline may also be used.

4. Surgeries for Cartilage Regeneration

As cartilage does not contain blood vessels, it does not have a reliable blood supply, which prevents damaged cartilage from healing well naturally. (9) Different techniques may be used to repair cartilage, including but not limited to:

  • Making small cuts or abrasions in the bone directly below the cartilage injury. The aim is that the blood from the damaged bone will facilitate new cartilage cell growth.
  • Transplanting cartilage from another part of the patient’s body, a donor, or an animal.
  • Implanting engineered tissue made from stem cells and an artificial scaffold—a sort of microscopic netting that holds the cells until they mature and grow. (9)

Risks and Side Effects of Regenerative Medicine Treatment

Most regenerative medicine treatments are considered safe and have few potential side effects. Side effects arising from regenerative therapies subside in a short span. (10)

  • Some of the commonly observed side effects are bleeding, pain, swelling or inflammation of nerves and infection.
  • It can also result in mouth sores, low platelet levels, low red blood count, fatigue, nausea and vomiting.

But regenerative medicine therapy’s benefits outweigh the risks and side effects because it has the capability to save the life of a person.

Before providing any treatment, a doctor should also explain the potential risks, side effects, benefits, procedure, recovery and time frame for healing and follow-up protocol to his/her patients. It is also the responsibility of the patient to have at least one follow-up appointment with the doctor once the treatment is successfully completed. Knowing all the information beforehand helps the couple in taking better and wise decision.

Regenerative Medicine is a boon to mankind irrespective of the type of treatment you are looking for whether it is about fertility or reproductive solutions or tissue engineering for a damaged organ. Follow OVO Fertility blog to get regular updates and latest innovations in Regenerative Medicine or reach us at +91-8268260808 and let us assist you with Regenerative Medicine treatment solutions.

 

SOURCES AND REFERENCES:

  1. ^ Regenerative Medicine | Wikipedia En.wikipedia.org, 27 August 2019
  2. ^ Regenerative Medicine | AABB Aabb.org, 27 August 2019
  3. ^ Current Status of Uterine Regenerative Medicine for Absolute Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 27 August 2019
  4. ^ Infertility: Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, and Treatments Medicalnewstoday.com, 27 August 2019
  5. ^ Erectile Dysfunction | Wikipedia En.wikipedia.org, 27 August 2019
  6. ^ Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do | Mayo Clinic Mayoclinic.org, 27 August 2019
  7. ^ Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy (PRP) Medicalnewstoday.com, 27 August 2019
  8. ^ Prolotherapy: Uses, Side Effects, and Costs | Medical News Today Medicalnewstoday.com, 27 August 2019
  9. ^ Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do | Mayo Clinic Verywellhealth.com, 27 August 2019
  10. ^ Regenerative Medicine | AABB Aabb.org, 27 August 2019
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6 Comments

Akhilesh Bajaj

One of my friends opted for the cartilage regeneration procedure. He is satisfied with the results of the procedure.

Oct. 5, 2018, 7:04 a.m. 5.0

Nandini Nigam

I think I will go for the PRP therapy for my infertility treatment. Please suggest some doctors too in Gurgaon.

Oct. 4, 2018, 9:33 p.m. 4.5

Prakriti Yadav

Stem cell therapy is really effective. After reading this blog, I came to know about prolotherapy procedure.

Sept. 18, 2018, 10 a.m. 5.0

Sandhya Shah

I had a miscarriage a year ago, and since then, I am not able to conceive. Is it possible for me to opt for regenerative medicine and be pregnant again?

Sept. 5, 2018, 11:53 a.m. 4.5

Nitin chaturvedi

I think it is the most easier and effective way to treat infertility and the side-effects are pretty normal.

Aug. 30, 2018, 9:49 a.m. 5.0

Sourabh Rabindran

Aug. 25, 2018, 2:51 p.m. 4.5

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